r and d中文意思是什麼

r and d解釋
R and D,R & D=research and development 研究與發展。

  • r: 1 〈拉丁語〉 recipe 【醫學】處方。2 radical 3 Reaumur 4 〈拉丁語〉 Rex Regina 5 radius 6 ratio 7 ...
  • and: n. 1. 附加條件。2. 〈常 pl. 〉附加細節。
  • d:
  1. Following the research route of mend with study and development with creation, give the definition of risk and the methods of risk identifying, divide the risk attitude into risk loving, risk neutralism and risk avoiding, point out the importance of enhancing the risk consciousness for lightning hazard, and summarize the mechanisms of lightning hazard the theories and methods of risk assessment for lightning hazard. provide a set of risk assessment parameters for lightning hazard, which includes lightning times n, hazard probability p, hazard loss d, hazard risk r and protection efficiency e, and give the definition, decisive factor, value method and value scope of each parameter. establish a risk assessment model for lightning hazard which includes lightning hazard base module, lightning hazard probability module, lightning hazard loss module, lightning hazard accepted risk module, lightning protection cost module, correcting coefficient module, lightning hazard risk module, and lightning protection class and efficiency module

    遵循借鑒改造和發展創新的研究思路,給出了風險的定義和風險識別的方法,將風險態度分為風險喜好型、風險中庸型和風險逃避型,指出了提高雷電災害風險意識的重要性,總結了雷電災害的作用機制和雷電災害風險評估的理論與方法;提供了包括雷擊次數n 、雷災概率p 、雷災損失d 、雷災風險r和雷電防護級別與防護效率e等5類基本參數的雷電災害風險評估參數體系,並給出了各個參數的定義、參數的決定因素和取值方法以及取值范圍;設計了包括雷電災害基礎模塊、雷電災害概率評估模塊、雷電災害損失評估模塊、雷電災害允許風險評估模塊、雷電防護成本評估模塊、校正系數模塊、雷電災害風險評估模塊、雷電防護級別與效率分析模塊等8個模塊的雷電災害風險評估模型,評估模型以iec61662的評估模型為基本參考,以雷災損失d為中心,把雷災風險劃分為經濟雷災風險r _ e和人身雷災風險r _ l ,並對r _ e和r _ l分開單獨處理。
  2. Kevin and joanna are discussing the importance of r and d in relation to the development of the company

  3. Joanna : research and development, without a doubt. without the proper r and d to get a product started, it won ' t go anywhere

  4. E. e. enochs put forword the concepts of injective ( projective or flat ) ( pre ) cover and ( pre ) envelope in the early 1980s ", a lot of articles have studied existence and uniqueness of such ( pre ) covers and ( pre ) envelopes, the property of their kernels or cokernels, and character many special rings. moreover, if such kind of ( pre ) covers or ( pre ) envelopes exist, we can construct a complete injective ( projective or flat ) resolvent ( called resolution when exact ) and a partial injective ( projective or flat ) resolvent, and if r is a ring, we can study the relationship of its left global dimension l. d ( r ) ( or its weak dimension w ( r ) ) and the properties of syzygies ( or cosyzygies ) of a resolvent ( or resolution ), and the relationship of its left global dimension l. d ( r ) ( or its weak dimension ) and the exactness of a resolvent ( or resolution )

    自八十年代初e . e . enochs首次提出並研究內射(投射、平坦) (預)蓋及內射(投射、平坦) (預)包這些概念以來,大批論文研究此類包、蓋的存在性、唯一性問題以及它們的核、上核的性質,並據此刻畫了一些常見的特殊環;更進一步地,當此類包、蓋存在時,我們可構造相應的完全投射(平坦、內射)預解式(當正合時稱為完全分解式)以及單邊投射(平坦、內射)預解式,研究了環的左(右)總體維數、弱維數與此類分解式的合沖模(或上合沖模)的性質、復形正合性之間的關系。
  5. Google has become the place to get rich. but that argument goes only so far. it ca n ' t explain why kai - fu lee, a microsoft executive, joined google this summer - after the ipo bonanza - to become head of its new r and d center in china